| СР | SR | EN |

“I Have Already Seen in the Clouds”: The Nature of the Water-creature among the |xam Bushmen and their Modern Descendants

„Već sam video u oblacima“: Priroda vodenog bića među Cham-Bušmanima i njihovim savremenim potomcima


Folkloristika 3/1 (2018): 13‒37
Аutor: José Manuel de Prada-Samper 
Tekst: PDF

 

The 19th |xam Bushmen of the Upper Karoo, South Africa, told stories about a protean being called !khwa: (“water”), one of whose many shapes was that of a bovine they called “the water bull”, which ritual specialists captured in order to cause rain over the land. This water-creature has been variously interpreted by scholars as a metaphor, a symbol of the dangers of water or a death-wielding divinity. This article seeks to demonstrate that for the |xam and their contemporary descendants the water-creature was, and still is, water itself, considered to be a living being when present in large concentrations, such as dams, rivers or permanent waterholes, or certain accumulations of clouds. Because of this the water-creature is a tangible entity connected with a vital substance, but whose dealings with human beings are always fraught with danger.
Keywords: |xam Bushmen, Bleek-Lloyd Collection, Karoo, water-creature, water-bull, rock art
 

U 19. veku Cham-Bušmani Gornjeg Karua u Južnoj Africi pričali su priče o biću promenljivog oblika zvanom !khwa: (‘voda’), čija je jedna od mnogih formi bila bik – zvali su ga vodeni bik, a vračevi su ga hvatali da bi izazvali kišu. U nauci je ovo vodeno biće tumačeno na različite načine: kao metafora, simbol vodene stihije, ili božanstva smrti. Cilj ovog rada je da dokaže da je za narod Cham i njegove savremene potomke ovo vodeno biće nekada bilo, i još uvek je, voda kao takva, koja se smatra živim bićem onda kada čini veće vodene formacije, kao što su branom napravljeni bazeni, reke, rupe koje su stalni izvori akumulirane vode, ili neke skupine oblaka. To je razlog što se ovo vodeno stvorenje doživljava kao opipljivo biće, koje je povezano sa ključnim životnim elementom, ali koje je istovremeno izvor potencijalne opasnosti za ljude.
Ključne reči: Cham-Bušmani, zbirka Blika i Lojdove, Karu, vodeno biće, vodeni bik, petroglifi