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Мотивот предење во балканските народни култури со посебен осврт на македонската народна култура

The Spinning Motif of Balkan Folk Cultures with special Emphasis on the Macedonian Folk Culture

Фолклористика 2/1 (2017): 79‒124
Аутор: Весна Петреска
Текст: PDF



Во трудот се разгледува мотивот предење во различни сфери од балканските народни култури. Предењето на кое се надоврзува волната, текстилот, ткаењето, конецот, влакното се разгледува во семејниот циклус, но и во годишниот циклус обичаи. Врз основа на анализирање на мотивот предење кога тој се појавува, како и различните забрани сврзани со предењето, кои се појавуваат пред сè во календарот, и казните кон прекршителите, првенствено од митолошки женски суштества, применувајќи ја главно симболичката анализа, ќе се настојува да се покаже дека овој мотив е доста распространет во пресвртливи периоди и е сврзан со плодоносниот принцип.
Клучни зборови: предење, митолошки суштества, народен календар, волна, вретено, влакно

In the Balkan folk cultures the motif of spinning is connected to the fertility, the marital symbolism, and the rites of passage. The passage is represented at the individual level, in the life-cycle customs and the passage from one state to another. This is particularly evident in birth rites, when on the third night after the child’s birth his/her fate was determined by the fairies that “spun the thread of life”. Also, the healing customs can be attached to the motif of the spinning of the thread, since the spinning motif was present in incantations, while tying laces of the ill person in a certain areas or plants that corresponded to the other world.
The spinning related to the passing to a new phase is noticeable also in the girl’s apprentices’ household chores – spinning, weaving, knitting and embroidery. This is connected to the initiation rites, when girls were separated in a specially prepared places kukjarici, where they “mastered” these activities. The spinning motive is related with the passage from one to another time period in the calendar. This indicates prohibitions of women’s household chores that are particularly prevalent during the period of the Unbaptized Days from 7th to 18th January, Tripunova sestra (“St. Tryphon’s sister”), or Ovcha Bogorodica (“Mother of God’s sheep”) on 15th February, Mid-lent week, the period called Between two Mothers of God, from 28th August to 21st September, the period from Mitrovden (Saint Demetrios of Thessaloniki, 8th November) to Arangjelovden (Saint Michael the Archangel, 21st November) and on Martinci (Saint Menas, in popular belief celebrated as a holiday of the wolves, 24th November). The prohibition of spinning is evident in the following time passages and complexes in the Macedonian traditional calendar: from the period of the Unbaptized Days until the Tripunova sestra or Ovcha Bogorodica holiday, that represents the transition into the early spring ritual complex; on Mid-lent week the transition is noticeable from the spring to the summer ritual complex; the period around Between two Mother’s of God can be seen as a transition to the autumn ritual complex, while St. Demetrios feast day and the following holidays are transition to the winter ritual complex.
Key words: spinning, mythical beings, folk calendar, wool, spindle, staple